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Footnotes

1DePanfilis, Diane and Salus, Marsha K.  Child Protective Services: A Guide for Caseworkers.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  2003.  25-26.

2Action for Child Protection.  Differences between Risk and Safety.  January 2003.

3National Resource Center on Child Maltreatment.  Briefing Paper of the Ohio Safety and Risk Assessment Workgroups.  2002.

4Action for Child Protection.  Threats to Child Safety.  March 2003.

5DePanfilis, Diane and Salus, Marsha K.  Child Protective Services: A Guide for Caseworkers.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  2003.  26.

6Fluke, J., Y.T. Yuan and M. Edwards. "Recurrence of Maltreatment: An application of the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System." Child Abuse and Neglect 23(7) (1999): 633-650.

7Belsky, J. Etiology of Child Maltreatment: An Ecological-Contextual Analysis.  Paper prepared for the panel on Research on Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington D.C.: National Research Council. 1992.

8National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect. Risk and Protective Factors for Child Abuse and Neglect. 2003.

9Webster-Stratton, C. "Comparison of Abuse and Non-abusive Family with Conduct-disordered Children."  American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 55(1) (1985): 59-69.

10National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. Risk and Protective Factors for Child Abuse and Neglect. 2004.

11Main, M. "Explorations, Play, Cognitive Functioning Related to Infant Mother Attachment." Infant Behavior and Development 6 (1983): 167-174.

12National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. Risk and Protective Factors for Child Abuse and Neglect.  2004.

13National Center for Children Exposed to Violence. Domestic Violence.  2003.

14U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect. A Nation's Shame: Fatal Child Abuse and Neglect in the United States: Fifth Report. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families (1995).  253.

15Carter, Janet.  Domestic Violence, Child Abuse, and Youth Violence: Strategies for Prevention and Early Intervention.  Family Violence Prevention Fund.  2001.

16Carter, Janet.  Domestic Violence, Child Abuse, and Youth Violence: Strategies for Prevention and Early Intervention.  Family Violence Prevention Fund.  2001.

17Carter, Janet.  Domestic Violence, Child Abuse, and Youth Violence: Strategies for Prevention and Early Intervention. Family Violence Prevention Fund.  2001.

18Carter, Janet, Domestic Violence, Child Abuse, and Youth Violence: Strategies           for Prevention and Early Intervention. Family Violence Prevention Fund.  2001.

19Carter, Janet.  Domestic Violence, Child Abuse, and Youth Violence: Strategies for Prevention and Early Intervention. Family Violence Prevention Fund.  2001.

20National Center for Children Exposed to Violence.  Domestic Violence.  2003.

21National Center for Children Exposed to Violence.  Domestic Violence.  2003.

22The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, No Safe Haven: Children of Substance-Abusing Parents. January 1999. 3.

23Office of Applied Studies. Children Living With Substance-Abusing  or Substance-Dependent Parents.  Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. 2003.

24Dube, S.R., Anda, R.F., Felitti, V.J., Croft, J.B., Edwards, V.J., and Giles, W.H. "Growing up with Parental Alcohol Abuse: Exposure to Childhood Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction."  Child Abuse and Neglect 25 (2001): 1627-1640.

25Department of Health and Human Services. Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground: A Report to Congress on Substance Abuse and Child Protection. April 1999, 31.

26National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment.  2003.

27Department of Health and Human Services. Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground: A Report to Congress on Substance Abuse and Child Protection, April 1999.

28Maccoby, E.E., and J.A. Martin. "Socialization in the Context of Family: Parent-Child Interaction." Handbook of Child Psychology:  Socialization, Personality, and Social Development.  Ed. P.J. Mussen and E.M. Heatherington. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1983. 1-102.

29Child Welfare Institute.  Caretaker and Child Interaction in Child Maltreatment. Ideas in Action. September 2004.

30Kadushin, Alfred and Martin, Judith. Child Abuse, An Interactive Event. Columbia University Press. 1981.

Ainsworth, M.D.S. "Attachment and Child Abuse." Child Abuse: An Agenda for Action.  Ed. G. Gerber, C.J. Ross, and E. Zigler. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.  25-47.

Cline, Foster W.  What Shall We Do With This Kid?  Understanding and Treating the Severely Disturbed Child.  Evergreen Consultants in Human Behavior. 1979.

Fahlberg, V.  Separation and Attachment. Michigan Department of Social Services. 1979.

31Garbarino, James and Gilliam, Gwen. Understanding Abusive Families. Lexington Books. 1980.

Pelton, Leroy.  The Social and Economic Context of Child Abuse and Neglect. Human Services Press. 1985.

Kempe, C.H. and R.E. Helfer. The Battered Child (3rd Ed.)Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  104-114.

32National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. Risk and Protective Factors for Child Abuse and Neglect.  2004.

33National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information. Risk and Protective Factors for Child Abuse and Neglect.  2004.

34Garbarino and Gilliam, Understanding Abusive Families; Pelton, The Social and Economic Context of Child Abuse and Neglect; Kempe, The Battered Child.

35Kadushin, Alfred and Martin, Judith.  Child Abuse: An Interactive Event. Columbia University Press. 1981.

Finklehor, David. Sexual Abuse: New Theory and Research.  The Free Press. 1984.

36Department of Health and Human Services.  Blending Perspectives and Building Common Ground: A Report to Congress on Substance Abuse and Child Protection.  April 1999.  26.

37National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information.  Risk and Protective Factors for Child Abuse and Neglect.  February 2004.

38 DePanfilis, Diane and Salus, Marsha K.  Child Protective Services: A Guide for Caseworkers.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  2003.  22-23.

39DePanfilis, Diane and Salus, Marsha K.  Child Protective Services: A Guide for Caseworkers.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  2003.  22-23.

40Portions of The Family Risk Assessment Section is taken from:  Cuyahoga County Department of Families and Children. SDM Policy and Procedures Manual. May 2004.

41Cuyahoga County Department of Children and Families, SDM Policies and Procedures Manual, May 2004.

42Cuyahoga County Department of Children and Families. SDM Policies and Procedures Manual. May 2004.

43DePanfilis, Diane and Salus, Marsha K.  Child Protective Services: A Guide for Caseworkers.  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  2003.  77.

44"Preventing Delinquency Through Improved Child Protection Services." Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice. July 2001.

45"Preventing Delinquency Through Improved Child Protection Services." Juvenile Justice Bulletin.  Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice. July 2001.

46Wasserman, Gail A., Keenan, Kate, Tremblay, Richard E.; Cole, John D.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David. "Risk and Protective Factors of Child Delinquency." Child Delinquency Bulletin Series. U.S. Department of Justice. April 2003.

47DePanfilis, D. and Salus, M.K.  Child Protective Services: A Guide for Caseworkers.  U.S. Department of Human Services.  2003.

48DePanfilis, D. and Salus, M.K.  Child Protective Services: A Guide for Caseworkers.  U.S. Department of Human Services.  2003.

49National Resource Center for Foster Care and Permanency Planning. Tools for Permanency. 1998.

50McCarthy, Jan; Marshall, Anita; Collins, Julie; Arganza, Girlyn; Deserly, Kathy; Milon, Juanita. A Family's Guide to the Child Welfare System. 2003.

51The Risk Reassessment section is taken from:  Cuyahoga County Department of Children and Families.  SDM Policies and Procedures Manual.  May 2004.

52McCarthy, Jan; Marshall, Anita; Collins, Julie; Arganza, Girlyn; Deserly, Kathy; Milon, Juanita.  A Family's Guide to the Child Welfare System. 2003.